Bleeding gums are one of the main reasons for consultation in dental centers. Inflammatory or infectious processes can cause bleeding in the gums, which may be related to serious dental disease.
The gums represent the dental support, it is a tissue specially designed to maintain the blood supply of the teeth and keep them fixed to the bone when inflammatory or infectious processes occur the functions of the gum are compromised and the teeth can suffer consequences such as color changes or risk of periodontal disease.
7 Causes of bleeding gums
Bacterial plaque is a transparent layer that adheres to the teeth, it occurs after each meal especially if they are foods high in sugar. Bacterial plaque forms daily and is removed with daily brushing. When plaque builds up the gums become irritated and inflamed, this is one of the main reasons for bleeding gums.
The accumulated bacterial plaque hardens and creates a thick layer on the teeth, increasing bacterial proliferation. Bacteria and tartar cause inflammation of the gums can also cause infection, bleeding, redness and other discomforts such as dental pain.
The inflammation of the gums is known with the term gingivitis, its main symptom is recurrent bleeding of the gums, due to inflammation, the gums are usually more sensitive, small touches or brushing can cause bleeding.
Pregnancy, menstruation, and consumption of oral contraceptives are frequent causes of bleeding gums, this is due to hormonal changes, the bacterial activity can be modified depending on the activity of estrogen and progesterone, this causes bacteria present in bacterial plaque increase in number and activity
Diabetes alters the pH of the body and metabolism of food, especially starches, sugars and fats, these changes alter the usual bacterial flora of dental plaque, this can cause bleeding of the gums, diabetes can also cause weakening of tooth enamel and increase bacterial growth.
Bad brushing technique
Improper brushing, too strong or done with a worn-out bristle brush, can cause recurrent bleeding of the gums because they are injured.
The consumption of some medications such as aspirin and antibiotics can have effects on blood processes, such as aspirin. Aspirin has great anticoagulant effects; antibiotics alter the organic microbiota producing an increase in the number of bacteria or their activity. Cold syrups usually have a high sugar content to improve their flavor, this works as an inducer of bacterial plaque.
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Complications of bleeding gums
The main complication of bleeding gums is the development of gingivitis and periodontal diseases.
The most frequent symptoms of gingivitis:
- Bleeding gums
- Gum sensitivity
- Bad breath
- inflamed and red gums
When gingivitis is not treated properly, the risk of periodontitis is increased. During periodontitis, inflammation and infection extend to the bone, the teeth can be damaged due to lack of support and infectious processes. The consequences of periodontitis are not reversible.
Dental abscesses are very painful and merit antibiotic, analgesic and drainage treatment of the abscess.
How to prevent bleeding gums?
Proper brushing ensures correct elimination of bacterial plaque and food waste.
Tips for proper brushing
- Brushing time is important, to ensure a complete cleaning brushing must be done for 2 minutes.
- The movements should be short and smooth, preferably with a soft bristle brush.
- The top and bottom teeth must be cleaned, outside and inside.
- Chewing areas, with dental arrangements or difficult access such as the back teeth, should be brushed properly.
- Brushing the tongue properly eliminates bacteria, providing a feeling of freshness and cleanliness throughout the mouth.
Inadequate feeding can heighten gum bleeding, which is often linked to deficiencies in vitamin C and iron.Consuming a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, which are high in vitamins and minerals, ensures sufficient levels of calcium, fluoride, vitamin C, and iron, all of which are essential for maintaining good oral health.
- Avoid the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and sugary drinks.
Cigarette smoking is highly irritating to the oral mucosa, favoring the irritation and inflammation of the gums. Sugary drinks and alcohol increase the production of bacteria and weaken tooth enamel.
- Visits to the dentist
Preventive measures of bleeding gums include visits to the dentist, professional cleaning is necessary at least twice a year, these cleanings, remove the dirt accumulated in hard-to-reach spaces with the toothbrush and floss. Visits to the dentist allow reviews of oral health and early detection of diseases such as tooth decay or gingivitis.
Use of suitable dental hygiene materials
It is possible to have a good brushing technique and bleed due to the presence of bacterial plaque, this is because the hygiene materials used are not adequate.
For maintaining good oral hygiene, it’s essential to use high-quality toothpaste with a significant amount of fluoride. It’s recommended to use high-quality toothpaste with fluoride at least twice a day or after main meals such as breakfast, lunch, and dinner to maintain good oral hygiene.
Mouth rinses are solutions that are designed for dental hygiene. Currently, there are compositions available for different needs. Mouthwash has the advantage of reaching all the spaces in the mouth.
Dentists make use of mouthwashes containing anti-inflammatory and antibiotic medications to treat moderate and severe cases of gingivitis and other dental diseases.
If the gums bleed during brushing, it is an indication of gum inflammation and should not occur in healthy gums. Inflammation is always a sign of gingivitis.
Trauma bleeds are a punctual event, isolated from an inflammatory process of the gums. Frequent bleeding during brushing, chewing, and even at rest represents a significant degree of gum inflammation, requiring dental consultation.
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